Urology is the branch of medicine that focuses on the urinary tracts of males and females, and on the reproductive system of males.
Medical professionals specializing in the field of urology are called urologists and are trained to diagnose, treat, and manage patients with urological disorders; they may hold one of the following medical degrees, either (MD, MBBS, MBChB, etc) or (DO) degree.
The organs covered by urology include the kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra, and the male reproductive organs (testes, epididymis, vas deferens, seminal vesicles, prostate and penis).
In men, the urinary system overlaps with the reproductive system, and in women the urinary tract opens into the vulva.
In both sexes, the urinary and reproductive tracts are close together, and disorders of one often affect the other.
Urology combines management of medical (i.e., non-surgical) problems such as urinary infections, and surgical problems such as the correction of congenital abnormalities and the surgical management of cancers.
Such abnormalities within the genital region are called genitourinary disorders.
Urology is closely related to, and in some cases overlaps with, the medical fields of nephrology, andrology, gynecology, proctology and oncology.